Introduction to the ICNALE
Last updated 2015/05/31
The ICNALE-Spoken 1.0 has been released. See the download page.
What is The ICNALE?
The International Corpus Network of Asian Learners of English (ICNALE)
is one of the largest learner corpora focusing on Asian leaners. The ICNALE-Written
holds 1.3 M words of controlled essays written by 2,600 college students
in 10 Asian countries and areas as well as 200 English Native Speakers.
The ICNALE-Spoken and the ICNALE-Proofread, both of which are comparable
to the ICNALE-Written, are now under construction.
The ICNALE is designed as a reliable database for international contrastive
interlanguage analysis and it can also be used for studies of the World
Englishes in Asia. The ICNALE has been compiled by Dr. Shin'ichiro Ishikawa
of Kobe University, Japan in the research project supported by the MEXT
(Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture of Japan) / JSPS (Japan
Society for the Promotion of Science), Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research
(B), No. 22320104.2 (2010.4-2013.3) and No. 25284104 (2014.4-2016.3).
The Structure of the ICNALE (As of January, 2014)
Ishikawa, S. (2014). Design of the ICNALE-Spoken: A new database for multi-modal contrastive
interlanguage analysis. In S. Ishikawa (Ed.), Learner corpus studies in Asia and the world, 2 (pp. 63-76). Kobe, Japan: Kobe University.
Ishikawa, S. (2013). The ICNALE and sophisticated contrastive interlanguage analysis of Asian
Learners of English. In S. Ishikawa (Ed.), Learner corpus studies in Asia and the world, 1 (pp. 91-118). Kobe, Japan: Kobe University.
Ishikawa, S. (2011). A new horizon in learner corpus studies: The aim of the ICNALE project. In G. Weir, S. Ishikawa, & K. Poonpon (Eds.), Corpora and language technologies in teaching, learning and research (pp.3-11). Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde Publishing.
Ishikawa, S. (2012). Beshikku Kopasu Gengogaku. Tokyo: Hitsuji Shobo. [Basic Corpus Linguistics].
Focus on Asian Learners
The ICNALE includes essays and speeches produced by EFL learners (China,
Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Thailand) and ESL users (Hong Kong, Singapore,
Pakistan, Philippines) in Asia, as well as English native speakers (US,
UK, Australia, etc.), covering all of the Inner, Outer, and Expanding Circles
in Asia (Kachru, 1992).
Countries covered in Asia (Original map from UNESCO)
| The data collected in the ICNALE-Written
||# of Tokens
||USA, UK, CAN, AUS, NZ
|| 200/ 400
*1,306,660 tokens based on
the word count by Wordsmith.
Control on the Conditions for L2 Production
In order to conduct a reliable contrastive study, we need to control varied
factors potentially influencing the language of the essays (Adel, 2008).
In the ICNALE, conditions for writing and speaking are controlled as strictly
||Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Use reasons and specific
details to support your claim
(A) It is important for college students to have a part time job.
(B) Smoking should be completely banned at all the restaurants in the country.
||20 to 40 mins for one essay
||60 second for one speech
||200 to 300 words (+-10%)
Control on L2 Proficiency of Participants
Another factor influencing L2 production is a learner's L2 proficiency.
In the project, based on the participants' scores in the standard L2 proficiency
tests such as TOEIC or TOEFL or in the standard vocabulary size test (VST) (Nation, & Begler, 2007), we classified
participants' proficiencies into four levels: A2 (Waystage), B1_1 (Threshold: Lower), B1_2 (Threshold: Upper), and B2+ (Vantage or higher). These are identical with the levels proposed in the CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference). The table below shows the percentage
of participants of the ICNALE-Written at each proficiency level .
The ratio of L2 proficiency bands in the ICNALE-Written
||72 (527) +
2014/6/19 Corrected typos in the threshold scores of the TOEFL. See the
"About Data" page for detail.
Comparable NS Data
The ICNALE also includes the L1 production data by English native speakers.
The same topics and the same conditions are given to learners and native
speakers, which assures high reliability in NS-NNS contrastive studies.
The ratio of nationalities of native speakers (The ICNALE-Written)
In case of the ICNALE-Written, the ENS Module includes 400 essays written
by 200 writers, who are subdivided into ENS1 (ENS_001-100) and ENS 2 (ENS_101-200).
ENS 1 writers are college students, while ENS 2 writers are employed (the
average age is 34.3). Countries included in the ENS module (ENS1 + ENS2)
are USA (57.0%), United Kingdom (14.0%), Canada (14.0%), Australia (8.5%),
and New Zealand (6.5%). The ICNALE covers both of the British English and American English.
How to Access The ICNALE
There are two ways for you to use the ICNALE. One is The ICNALE Online, where you can conduct KWIC Search, Collocation Search, Wordlist Search,
and Keywords Search. The other is the ICNALE for Download. You can download
the whole data and analyze it with your favorite concordancer such as AntCoc
or Wordsmith. The ICNALE-Spoken Baby is curently available only in the
The ICNALE Online
The ICNALE for Download
The Int'l ICNALE Development Team
Project Leader --- Shin'ichiro Ishikawa (Kobe University)
Academic Advisers --- Masao Aikawa (Kyoto University of Foreign Studies),
Ichiro Akano (Kyoto University of Foreign Studies), Kazuaki Goto (Setsunan
University), Tetsuya Enokizono (Chukyo University), Hideo Masuda (Kyoto
Instiute of Technology), Masamichi Mochizuki (Reitaku University), Yasumi
Murata (Meijyo University), Hiroshi Shimatani (Kumamoto University), Masahiro
Hori (Kumamoto Gakuen University)
The ICNALE-Written Development Team
China --- Katsuki Mayumi (Dalian University of Technology), Fang Li (Wuhan
University), Lu Yuanwen (School of Foreign Languages, Shanghai Jiaotong
Indonesia --- Leonardi Lucky Kurniawan (Polytechnic of Ubaya, Surabaya)
Korea --- Sook Kyung Jung (Daejeon University) / Oryang Kwon (Seoul National
Japan --- Shin'ichiro Ishikawa (Kobe University) / Yuka Ishikawa (Nagoya
Institute of Technology)
Hong Kong --- John Milton (Hong Kong University of Science & Technology)
Pakistan --- Asim Mahmood (Government College University (GCU) Faisalabad)
The Philippines --- Karen L. Gabinete (De La Salle University-Manila)
Singapore --- Vincent Ooi (National Singapore University)
Taiwan (Chinese Taipei) --- Siaw-Fong Chung (National Chengchi University)
Thailand --- Sonthida Keyuravong / Punjaporn Pojanapunya (King Mongkut's
University of Technology, Thonburi)
The ICNALE-Spoken Development Team
CHN---Yuanwen Lu (Shanghai Jiao Tong University), LIU Rui (Jinggangshan University), Xinghua Liu (Shanghai Jiao Tong University), Enyu Feng (Southeast University, Chengxian College, Nanjin)
HKG---WONG Suzanne Shu Shan (Chinese University of Hong Kong)
IDN---Leonardi Lucky Kurniawan (Polytechnic of Ubaya, Surabaya), Prihantoro
(Universitas Diponegoro), Hanung Triyoko (TAIN Salatiga)
JPN---Shin'ichiro Ishikawa (Kobe University)
KOR---Xinghua Liu, Kyong-Ae Yu (Chung-Ang University), Hye-Sook Kim (Konyang
PAK---Muhammad Asim Mahmood (Government College University), Moazzam Ali (University of Gujrat)
PHL---Mari Karen L. Gabinete (De La Salle University-Manila)
SIN---Vincent Ooi (National Singapore University)
THA---Penpitcha Prakaiborisuth (King Mongkut's University of Technology)
TWN---Ming Huei (John) Lin (Tamkang University)
Terms of Conditions of Use
All the data and the information of the ICNALE is provided by the ICNALE
Development Team. Before using it, please read the following Terms and
Conditions of Use. You may use the data and the information of the ICNALE
only when you agree to abide by them. Please note that all the data and
the information of the ICNALE is provided for informational purposes only.
Any rights concerning any and all content of the ICNALE belong to the the
ICNALE Development Team. You are prohibited to reprint, copy, modify, publish,
redistribute or commercially utilize any of the content, in part or in
whole, without the prior consent.
(1) The ICNALE Development Team shall not be liable to the user for any
trouble, damage or loss caused by his/her use of the ICNALE, regardless
of the cause.
(2) The ICNALE Development Team takes utmost care not to make any errors or omissions in providing the data and the information of the ICNALE, however they may include inaccurate contents, typographical errors, or improper information. The ICNALE Development Team shall not be liable for any such inaccuracy, incompleteness, inadequacy and unfairness of the data and the information presented in the ICNALE.
(3) The ICNALE Development Team makes no warranty or representation regarding
the accuracy, completeness, adequacy and fairness of the data and the information
of the ICNALE.
(4) The data and the information of the ICNALE may be changed or modified without any prior notice, and the ICNALE Site may be discontinued or closed without any prior notice.
(5) The ICNALE Development Team shall not be liable for any loss caused
by the modification of the data and the information and also by the discontinuation
or closing of the ICNALE Site, regardless of the reason.